CSS ~ Sociology


Sociology this is our topic of discussion today and When I study sociology I studied it as a subject and I am astonished that why the people They don’t study their own society in the form of sociology because we are all social animals as Aristotle says if we are not social then we are just animals So from Converting ourselves from the stage of animality to society we have to be social now what is sociology and how to be social the strategy is the study of society simply and When we say society so then it includes so many aspects the social interaction organization social order and our interaction with each other the social action So in society when we go and a human being is born So the human being is born alone But then with family parents siblings The house becomes home, and then that individual come out with mind and behavior, so The people in society outside in the village or town or city or market those people they are entrusted more in the behavior of their person if This behavior that is the manifestation of the mind What kind of thoughts are there in the mind so those stars are expressed in the form of behavior and when this behavior is a response to stimulus and the stimulus is any change in environment and Environment that is the interaction of so many factors so this Individual is then evaluated in a group of people Because your own thoughts may affect you but when these thoughts are manifested in the shape of your behavior you will attitude your Performance your personality when it is mixed with other people then you become social and did the people are entrusted in you This is a dilemma in Modern world especially that who is more important the mind individual our behavior So when we focus more on behavior in social psychology? So then that interaction becomes our subject matter How we interact? how we make peer groups who are our friends in our childhood? and In within the family with whom we interact more Interact means that to whom we show our mind So this individual when becomes part of a group That group can be society as a whole There can be community, now community is different from society, society is larger bigger while community that is more limited Many things are in common in community while in society the people must interact more Community for example we say that their teachers community are Pashtun community Sindhi community for example so then it is not necessary that there will be a lot of interaction Social interaction, but the people will feel that there are many values common Amongst members are between two members of that community, community can be of Five people it can be of hundreds, but while society that is you know a bigger concept The whole humanity can be one society if the social interaction when we study the computational Sociology are wind we study humidity as a whole and when there is more Globalization there is more communication and global level So then the world can become one society and when it becomes more common, then even it can becomes community So these are interesting things that we study in sociology now when we say Individual so the individual agency how much that individual is important? For example you are in a tribal society, so that is a structural Structuralism is one theory very important theory in sociology Structuralism we study one structure like we study gender Male gender female gender we study tribe, race You know these are different structures, and what are the functions of these structures then we call it functionalism? These are different theories For example there are different approaches in society And different approaches in to study society in sociology For example this classic theory, the classic theory Which depends for example our social interaction that is more important and then we come to conflict, then the struggle the class struggle of Karl Marx then we focus on class struggle We can refocus on interaction, interaction is a symbolic Interactionism that the people they interact with each other and then they form their social behavior in their interaction So there are different approaches and theories so for example we take the structure of tribe So now the whole tribe that determines the fate of an individual This endeavor has no role Even his or her marriage her children siblings education which school which social institution are these things are determined by the tribe So that is a tribal mentality that is a tribal society Where tribe is more important than individual so when we study historic because in sociology there are different ways like archives archival such a Approach we study history that how the human society our community that developed with the passage of time There was a time that in Jungles in woods the people would leave so the whole Existence at that atmosphere at that environment was one society and there was no individual characteristics or individual distinguished features Individual would not you know predetermined in that way The whole tribe or the whole community would decide the fate, so slowly and gradually when there was industrialization when an individual also got Its or his or her own income and became more independent He or she was no more dependent and other members of society, so he would feel that I am more important than The group, the group feeling at the herd for example the sheep if goes in a herd And if the sheep goes outside the herd so there will be phobia, fear She will be scared that if I’m out of this herd, so the land will come and will eat me But if you tell that sheep are that goat that animal that no you Alone is you’re strong enough that you can face the lion So then you know the individual agency will become more important For example in Western society when the children they get 18 years of age so then they leave sometimes the family and then become independent, why? because The society is made the sociology of their society is an such pattern that this individual alone after 18 years is no more a Child is no more a minor. That is a complete human being, adult, mature, self-sufficient, Confident. So now that person his or her individual agency that is more important as compared to the whole family or group or society There is for example interaction, that individual and his or her family and there’s why different days are Celebrated now. This is father day. This is mother day Why? because there is less interaction and then focus there is less daily interaction so they focus only on one day when they pass The whole day with his or her mother And then they call it mother day while in Eastern society they consider something very strange that why you Focus only one day, and why you called a day as a mother day So these are social patterns these are social behaviors in different society after industrialization individual became more important individuals became more conscious individual became more educated In a way that now. I am alone more important, but still an Individual would not leave alone 24 hours or 365 days a year just in his own or own home Environment or residence that person must go to market That must person must go in to an office and then that person should have some Relationship must have wife one day children one day so these things when we study in Western society That is totally different when we study these things in East trances they are Muslim society or other kinds of society So sexuality is the study of this whole phenomena how this individual when becomes part of society or community So what is the difference in behavior? for example an individual I have seen you know with sometimes I go to beaches so there is a part of Beach, which is called nude beach Only those people are there they don’t have any piece of clothes well if you go to any rural or in maybe even urban society and In Muslim countries, so they will cover the whole bodies everywhere What is this? this social behavior because here the individual one say that I am important This is my right. What kind of dress? I want to wear Nobody should control me so the things are going to another extreme that even they don’t You know give importance to the fashion or to the into the social requirements of dress code They they are becoming more and more rebellious of the social control So to study this social control, that is one of the interesting topic that we have in sociology Now for example the culture when the social patterns the interaction gets one particular color texture or flavor or pattern and One you know in a particular way a group of human beings they perform their activities Which may be abstract and which may be concrete material it may take a Civilizational form then that is called civilization and culture that is more abstract like music, art You know your dress style, the way you behave in theater, in a gathering, in a football match, in a stadium so all this become your culture when many people they behave in the same way, then it becomes culture and Then this culture may take the shape of civilization and then you know and whole Era, whole time period are you know it becomes more political So sociology is entrusted in individual The the thoughts then the application of those starts in society and when this individual becomes for example citizen of a state so then that state Also is interested in political sociology that how this individual is from His or her for home to society and in from society to state? and then global level United Nations and in this global citizenship that for example internationalism that we belong to the whole World. We are global citizens, and that’s why we see European Union for example you travel from Europe I have traveled in European Union just you have one visa or one passport or one card And then you can go to any country they don’t differentiate that this is Germany This is Switzerland or this is Italy or this is Spain you know the things are the interaction is increasing and then that is the economic aspect of society that we study in the economic societies in the political society the cultural aspects the Civilizational aspect all these things are so entrusting in to study that you you know the waves You you are astonished that where are the limits of an individual agency? Where is the limit of a family a peer group and then you become part of society? How you should behave? whether the things are relative? the things are absolute and Your one behavior in one place and another you’re the same person when go to inner society so the behavior is totally Changed should you respect those norms those values? Those you know those networking in different societies so all these things we do in sociological research Coming to the theory of sociology there are like in philosophy, psychology everywhere gender studies and other aspects we have like positivism and positivism Positivism is that sociology is a science, and it is unlike a natural science So they open the rules and regulations that we apply in a natural science can also be applied in sociology for example In chemistry we say that if two molecules of hydrogen and one molecule of oxygen so we get water so do we have this exactitude? this certainty This very Verity in Sociology also so that is that is the positivism that the things must be totally based on empirical evidence Experimentation we do observation we do our survey we get knowledge sorry information, data, primary data, secondary data, and then we Do it like we do in chemistry lab or in physics lab so this is positivism, but entire positivism? sociologists like Max Weber and others they Concentrated their no human beings are totally different from objects from matter from dead matter human beings you know the pregnant predictability that Is totally different you can’t predict like molecules of hydrogen and oxygen human beings are not like that? Human beings are totally different, and they are unpredictable their behavior, their attitudes, their moods, their mood, swings you know and the situation Environment that is not the same like for dead bodies or other objects So that’s why then they consider their sociology is a social science sociology is a social science like economics and others Sociology is also part of social studies, social studies is different from sociology Because in social study, they have three parts one is like history, humanities and then Social Sciences, so That becomes broader in aspect. For example the difference between applied sociology and Social Work For example poverty, poverty alleviation is one of the subject in Sociology especially in the Carl Marks Sociology, The class struggle and They say that all this thing is determined by account, economics, economy, money, Capital so the bourgeois and the pirate percolator yet That the people they are different classes you know upper class middle class Lower class so all this thing is based on Classes and those classes are based on money capital Wealth and the concentration of wealth so when we study these things in Sociology so then it because the other people say that no not only Economic aspects but also politics, but also culture also Spirituality and religion these things also are important. Just not only material aspects of Society so there are different approaches and those approaches then we study in different forms of research we do our survey qualitative and quantitative research in sociology and The for example the longitudinal survey, or you study something for a long time observational approach? You observe you collect data, and then you get The kind of conclusions as we do in Natural Sciences So sociology when we study the poverty alleviation for example is a topic in sociology So in sociology history it’s poverty itself and its impact on society the Society of poor people and rich people how the wealth determines your thought process your behavior and your attitude ?and This is in sociology, but when we go to the applied sister sociology So they give a strategy how to alleviate how to reduce? Poverty in our society that is in the workup applied sociology But when we come to social work so then that is the action that is the pragmatic that is the practical form of Social Attitudes or social action when we go and we participate and we actually reduce our alleviate Poverty in our Society So that is you know all these things in history in different disciplines, but these disciplines are interconnected This is not that social work it is not sociology But sociology is involved in social work and Social Work needs Sociology and sociology if you want to make it more important discipline, then you need social work That’s why if you go now the recent Research in sociology, then sociology is becoming like getting a kind of redundant Position it is no more important to study the theory of sociology and the sociological research what is more important that is social work like survey or for example social policy or for example applying sociology in our daily life that the people must they get in the public policy in the government the governance it needs sociological research otherwise just discussing it in a vacuum It will be of no value So these are the and this is another aspect of sociology that when we apply sociology in our society in Culture that is very interesting and in the subcultures for example in criminology we study subcultures the cultures of criminals for example in a particular Part of a city which is more symbolic Interaction-ism in criminology as well as in sociology that we focus our Attention just a particular group and then that becomes the sub culture and then when we come for example to the historic developments in Sociology from the Greeks so the modern times Ibn Khaldun Who wrote Muqaddimah Asabiyyah his famous theory? Then he said to the modern Sociologists, but some people say that knowing in the Western times Durkheim and Comte and Max Weber Karl Marx These people they are so you know in when you study their works. It is so interesting. I have read Muqaddimah That is also really really Interest book you should we should read that if we are really interested to understand But the books of are these sociologists are so much Interesting so when you want to make yourself like at really social beings in social animal not only animal so you need the study of sociology This is my introductory lecture on sociology Just to introduce you, to tell you that sociology is really interesting because you are part of society daily you are interacting in your society with people Look at them their attitudes for example in a Muslim country every people in any sentence They will say inshallah, and they will be always talking about God, and they will be talking about Prophet and they will be talking about the Holy books and you know their whole life pattern, that’s evolving around religion, but if you go to another society for example you go to Norway or Sweden or Denmark so they are the people you know they may not use such words, so this is linguistics social linguistics Even sociology is important in communication and everywhere this is The sociology is applied we see we observe sociology daily in our daily lives So we may not learn sociology from only from books But also from our own interaction when we come out from our bedroom. We come up from our Washroom, we go to our family room. We talk to people and then from family room. We go out We go to market we do our interaction with people and their attitude their behavior and then we make groups we feel like affiliated to one group and then we make a class and then we become part of a group of group of a class and in our interest and in our Clashes and our interaction they were clash of interest and or you know convergence and divergence of those Interest so all this phenomena will be study with closed eyes With open eyes, but with the without you know our eyes are closed from prejudices and biases objective way and we get qualitative and quantitative And we do our analysis so we are sociologists And then we understand sociology we go in details of sociology when we read sociology in books Then we understand it is just not like cramming or different sociological theories are works of different socialist But we should try to observe that Things in our own society then it will become more interesting to us. I recommend the study of sociology Whether it is for examination, which is it is a course it is highly highly Interesting because this is about us We is a social being so why not we should study our own selves and others and we can this way we can recommend You know our own Proposals and suggestions that how the society can become better And how there will be this is called utilitarianism another theory in sociology The rational choice theory they are doing the people consider something of value And there is utility so then you will see The difference because alike Bees you know when there is a flower so all the Bees will come and they will converge there and then They will make their own community so Similarly when there are economic interest or any utility and the rational choice Theory the people you know they choose things according to their Choices in their interest and their benefits so all these things did we and this is you know? Important even in marketing in economics that when you study the society And you study the the the pulse of society being a sociologist then You can recommend things to even to economists and managers and management in everywhere you see sociology so this is my introductory lecture then we will go in detail in each and every part of the sociology with more focus and Those topics which we will go will will in detail like studying from more with more research and with more theoretical background

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