InstCon16 | Culturally Responsive Canvas Courses


Marc Lentini: I should preface this with a
couple of things. Number one is, I’m going to refer to a couple
of studies and point to a couple of things that I’ve pulled data from, and all of that
is going to be in the community as soon after the session as I can get a decent Wi-Fi connection. So I’ll drop it into the community site for
this. So you don’t have to scribble too hard, and
you don’t have to try and decipher a two-word site and figure out what the study is from
that. It’ll all be there.  You know, the other thing is if you actually
came here to hear an expert on cultural responsiveness, I’m sure you can catch the beginning of another
session where a real expert will be. I’m not really that guy. This is something that I’ve been studying
and reading and working on for a couple of years in and around my other four jobs. So I’m still working on this, and I think
one of the things that, at one level, that’s a caution. At another level, one of the things that I’ve
learned is that there really is, when you talk about cultural responsiveness, there’s
not like a cultural responsiveness badge. There’s no there, there. It’s one of these subjects where we are kind
of always learning because the cultures around us and the cultures that we’re interacting
with at our colleges are changing, and they’re changing rapidly, and it’s a very deep and
complex subject, regardless of what your student body looks like. So, there’s always something new to learn. So, I can borrow the old marketing phrase
for Canvas, right? Keep learning. It works in this context as well.  So, cultural responsiveness is something that
has become a big deal at Highline. We are, by the way, I should say Highline
College, we’re about 15 miles south of Seattle, Washington. So we’re kind of, of late we serve the suburbs
that, all the communities that have been pushed out by the rapid gentrification and skyrocketing
housing prices in Seattle, have all kind of moved into our service district. So that’s who our audience is. When you break down the statistics, we are
the most diverse college in Washington State. We, about 70 and 75 percent of our students
identify as students of color. We serve a largely immigrant community, so
Somali, boy, Somali, Egyptian, Iraqi, Afghani, all around the Pacific Rim, most of the, many
of those immigrant communities live in South King County, which is our service district. Last I looked, about 1,000 of our students
are refugees, which means they essentially were relocate to the U.S. by the state department
because things were pretty ugly in their home country, and so they arrive often with the
suitcase on their back if they’re lucky. Like, that’s the last, that’s one thing they
were able to grab on the way out of their house when the guys with guns were chasing
them out.  So, it really is kind of a story of the American
story of opportunity and immigration, but also one of significant poverty. It shows in something like this, this is put
together by King County, which is our county, and it’s a GIS visualization called the Opportunity
Index. It’s a bunch of different measures that they’ve
compiled together to create a single index of economic opportunity. So if you look at the map there, there’s a
blue dot kind of up in the middle called Medina, that’s high economic opportunity; Medina is
where Bill Gates lives. As you move down and to the left, the browns
and oranges indicate lower economic opportunity. That green box is, roughly speaking, our service
district, and it shows often in the students that we see. The theater high schools, the three high schools
that feed into or that we often recruit students from, roughly two-thirds of the students are
on free and reduced lunch.  So, with that context, with that background,
it would be really easy to construct a narrative where, well, our students aren’t going to
succeed because they’ve got all these disadvantages, they’ve got all this stuff working against
them. They’re first-generation college students,
first-generation Americans, many of them don’t speak English. A lot of them arrive on our campus not even
literate in their own, in their home language. So, and we have to find a way to get them
to succeed. So it’s really easy to construct a narrative
about how many disadvantages they come to us with. On the other hand, it’s really easy to look
at some of the things that they’ve done and say “Well, they bring with us some really
interesting assets.” They have managed to survive some really difficult
stuff that we probably don’t have a clue about, and maybe we should be looking at that. Then, at a certain point, you go, maybe the
students’ success issue isn’t “gee look at all the disadvantages our students have.” Maybe the students’ success issue is “Gee,
looking at the students that we have, why aren’t we as an institution doing a better
job of helping them succeed?”  So, enter cultural responsive education. I’ve seen this also as cultural responsive
teaching, so the literature, I’m sure somewhere in the literature has parsed why they’re different,
but I think of them as the same. And this is an initiative that we’ve been
working on on our campus, to look at what we do, particularly in the classroom, but
really around all of our campus services, what we do in the classroom to help our students
succeed.  I think it’s helpful to get some definitions
on the table. There’s two that I’ve found really helpful. First, by Gary Howard, and I think as you
read this you could substitute canvas administrator or support staff or librarian for the word
teachers. And the nut of it really is how are we connecting
with our students, how are we learning what assets they have, and what their lives are
like in a way that we can connect that with learning opportunities in the classroom. Geneva Gay is another author who’s been writing
on this a lot, and again, same thing, what are we doing to look at, to access the experiences
that our students and the assets that our students bring to the classroom to make learning
encounters relevant for them. Right? To make things, make what they see, relevant
for them. You see this, right, through Mark Prensky’s
talk yesterday and then Angela Meyers this morning, right? When the students come with something that’s
relevant and important to them, they’re super engaged.  So, at Highline we, a couple of things we’re
doing on this. Some of the real experts on our campus have
created what we call the framework for cultural responsive educators. It’s a rubric that our instructors can use
to kind of self-study and work their way through what it means to be culturally responsive
as an instructor, and it follows Gary Howard’s structure.  We’ve put some light touch cultural responsiveness
into our canvas orientation, and our canvas orientation is mandatory but is also very
short. So there are a few things in there that are
essentially like, here’s what cultural responsiveness is, here are 10 things you can do right off
the bat to make your courses more culturally responsive, and here’s how you can learn more. It’s in there, and it’s in a mandatory training
that any faculty member who wants to use Canvas has to take. It’s part of our tenure and post-tenure criteria. We’ve been fortunate enough that we’ve been
able to hire a bunch of new faculty in the last two or three years, and so part of their
criteria that they have to show in order to get tenure is what they’re doing in terms
of cultural responsiveness in their classroom. It’s infused throughout our professional development
programs. So our in-service day, for instance, always
focuses on it for the last, boy, four or five years, focuses on diversity and cultural responsiveness
and then we co-sponsor some programs with students as well.  So my obsession has been, what does this mean
for learning technologies? There’s lots of literature that shows technology,
it has in short, right, technology has raised, so there are differing impacts for how technology
works in different communities and it’s parsed by income or parsed by race, parsed by ethnicity
and so on. So what are we doing, in terms of what technologies
do we choose, and how do we implement them, and how do we train people, how do we talk
to our faculty about teaching with these technologies? What are we doing to make sure that we’re
being culturally responsive in how we create those technologies or how we implement these
technologies and make them available to faculty and students?  So, if I were to sum up what I’ve learned
in the last couple of years, it’s, first of all similar to Angela Meyers’ comments this
morning; it’s about the people, it’s not really about the technology. There’s not like a cultural responsiveness
feature option in Canvas. You can’t go into the admin panel and go [Makes
clicking noise] and now your courses are culturally responsive. It’s a lot about what we do pedagogically
with the tools that Canvas provides and probably more about what we do in here and in here
to think about how we connect with our students and how we learn about what they bring to
the classroom.  I’m going to turn to Geneva Gay again for
help on this one. This has been a, she pulls out three themes,
she’s reviewed the research on what’s effective in cultural responsiveness and in cultural
responsive teaching, and she pulls out these three themes, and I’m going to use those to
help kind of divide up what I want to talk about for the rest of the presentation.  So culturally relevant content, teacher attitude
and expectation, and instructional actions. As she says here, right, it’s all three together. So you can’t just kind of do a few things
with your pedagogy and then decide I’m done. I’m culturally responsive now. Again, you have to keep learning. The other is that some of this can be really
heavy lifting, emotionally, it can be heavy lifting in terms of the workload to try and
change your course around a little bit. So, I’m going to try and pick out a few things
that are a little easier and that are good places to get started and highlight those. I’m going to take them out order too.  So I’ll start with the instructional actions. Making your classes mobile ready is really,
relatively low-difficulty way to go about it. And the evidence I would point to on this
is a bunch of studies done by Pew Research, this is the most recent one, that look at
who has smartphones, number one, and who is only accessing the internet via smartphone. So they don’t have a broadband connection
at home. If you look at the highlighted stuff in that
first column, notice there’s a big jump in the middle there between white and non-Hispanic,
is that even readable in like the fourth row? Okay. This big jump between white comma non-Hispanic
and black and Hispanic do not have broadband at home. The same with, it’s actually the same across
the way. Totally smartphone dependent is that far right-hand
column, so that’s their only internet access, a smartphone.  In the next one down, high school graduation
or less or some college, well that’s, right, that’s us, especially at a community college? Big jump from college plus, right, people
who have a college education already. And then again on income, so people in, so
the working poor, the people in low-wage jobs, right around the poverty line there, which
is, in Washington State, it’s a little below $30,000 a year, and then there’s a big jump
once you step up into the $30,000 to $70,000 per year income bracket.  So the students in our immigrant communities,
the first-generation Americans, the working poor that we serve, are smartphone dependent,
right, and they’re doing all their work on a smartphone. Which, I’ve got to say is pretty impressive,
cause it drives me crazy to ready that tiny screen after too long. So I’m pretty impressed that they’re succeeding
in our classes that way. But we can help them by making our content
more mobile. The flip side of this is don’t forget print. We talk a lot about OER and e-texts as ways
to reduce costs. Marc Lentini: I should preface this with a
couple of things. Number one is, I’m going to refer to a couple of studies and point
to a couple of things that I’ve pulled data from, and all of that is going to be in the
community as soon after the session as I can get a decent Wi-Fi connection. So I’ll drop
it into the community site for this. So you don’t have to scribble too hard, and you don’t
have to try and decipher a two-word site and figure out what the study is from that. It’ll
all be there.  You know, the other thing is if you actually
came here to hear an expert on cultural responsiveness, I’m sure you can catch the beginning of another
session where a real expert will be. I’m not really that guy. This is something that I’ve
been studying and reading and working on for a couple of years in and around my other four
jobs. So I’m still working on this, and I think one of the things that, at one level,
that’s a caution. At another level, one of the things that I’ve learned is that there
really is, when you talk about cultural responsiveness, there’s not like a cultural responsiveness
badge. There’s no there, there. It’s one of these subjects where we are kind of always
learning because the cultures around us and the cultures that we’re interacting with at
our colleges are changing, and they’re changing rapidly, and it’s a very deep and complex
subject, regardless of what your student body looks like. So, there’s always something new
to learn. So, I can borrow the old marketing phrase for Canvas, right? Keep learning. It
works in this context as well.  So, cultural responsiveness is something that
has become a big deal at Highline. We are, by the way, I should say Highline College,
we’re about 15 miles south of Seattle, Washington. So we’re kind of, of late we serve the suburbs
that, all the communities that have been pushed out by the rapid gentrification and skyrocketing
housing prices in Seattle, have all kind of moved into our service district. So that’s
who our audience is. When you break down the statistics, we are the most diverse college
in Washington State. We, about 70 and 75 percent of our students identify as students of color.
We serve a largely immigrant community, so Somali, boy, Somali, Egyptian, Iraqi, Afghani,
all around the Pacific Rim, most of the, many of those immigrant communities live in South
King County, which is our service district. Last I looked, about 1,000 of our students
are refugees, which means they essentially were relocate to the U.S. by the state department
because things were pretty ugly in their home country, and so they arrive often with the
suitcase on their back if they’re lucky. Like, that’s the last, that’s one thing they were
able to grab on the way out of their house when the guys with guns were chasing them
out.  So, it really is kind of a story of the American
story of opportunity and immigration, but also one of significant poverty. It shows
in something like this, this is put together by King County, which is our county, and it’s
a GIS visualization called the Opportunity Index. It’s a bunch of different measures
that they’ve compiled together to create a single index of economic opportunity. So if
you look at the map there, there’s a blue dot kind of up in the middle called Medina,
that’s high economic opportunity; Medina is where Bill Gates lives. As you move down and
to the left, the browns and oranges indicate lower economic opportunity. That green box
is, roughly speaking, our service district, and it shows often in the students that we
see. The theater high schools, the three high schools that feed into or that we often recruit
students from, roughly two-thirds of the students are on free and reduced lunch.  So, with that context, with that background,
it would be really easy to construct a narrative where, well, our students aren’t going to
succeed because they’ve got all these disadvantages, they’ve got all this stuff working against
them. They’re first-generation college students, first-generation Americans, many of them don’t
speak English. A lot of them arrive on our campus not even literate in their own, in
their home language. So, and we have to find a way to get them to succeed. So it’s really
easy to construct a narrative about how many disadvantages they come to us with. On the
other hand, it’s really easy to look at some of the things that they’ve done and say “Well,
they bring with us some really interesting assets.” They have managed to survive some
really difficult stuff that we probably don’t have a clue about, and maybe we should be
looking at that. Then, at a certain point, you go, maybe the students’ success issue
isn’t “gee look at all the disadvantages our students have.” Maybe the students’ success
issue is “Gee, looking at the students that we have, why aren’t we as an institution doing
a better job of helping them succeed?”  So, enter cultural responsive education. I’ve
seen this also as cultural responsive teaching, so the literature, I’m sure somewhere in the
literature has parsed why they’re different, but I think of them as the same. And this
is an initiative that we’ve been working on on our campus, to look at what we do, particularly
in the classroom, but really around all of our campus services, what we do in the classroom
to help our students succeed.  I think it’s helpful to get some definitions
on the table. There’s two that I’ve found really helpful. First, by Gary Howard, and
I think as you read this you could substitute canvas administrator or support staff or librarian
for the word teachers. And the nut of it really is how are we connecting with our students,
how are we learning what assets they have, and what their lives are like in a way that
we can connect that with learning opportunities in the classroom. Geneva Gay is another author
who’s been writing on this a lot, and again, same thing, what are we doing to look at,
to access the experiences that our students and the assets that our students bring to
the classroom to make learning encounters relevant for them. Right? To make things,
make what they see, relevant for them. You see this, right, through Mark Prensky’s talk
yesterday and then Angela Meyers this morning, right? When the students come with something
that’s relevant and important to them, they’re super engaged.  So, at Highline we, a couple of things we’re
doing on this. Some of the real experts on our campus have created what we call the framework
for cultural responsive educators. It’s a rubric that our instructors can use to kind
of self-study and work their way through what it means to be culturally responsive as an
instructor, and it follows Gary Howard’s structure.  We’ve put some light touch cultural responsiveness
into our canvas orientation, and our canvas orientation is mandatory but is also very
short. So there are a few things in there that are essentially like, here’s what cultural
responsiveness is, here are 10 things you can do right off the bat to make your courses
more culturally responsive, and here’s how you can learn more. It’s in there, and it’s
in a mandatory training that any faculty member who wants to use Canvas has to take. It’s
part of our tenure and post-tenure criteria. We’ve been fortunate enough that we’ve been
able to hire a bunch of new faculty in the last two or three years, and so part of their
criteria that they have to show in order to get tenure is what they’re doing in terms
of cultural responsiveness in their classroom. It’s infused throughout our professional development
programs. So our in-service day, for instance, always focuses on it for the last, boy, four
or five years, focuses on diversity and cultural responsiveness and then we co-sponsor some
programs with students as well.  So my obsession has been, what does this mean
for learning technologies? There’s lots of literature that shows technology, it has in
short, right, technology has raised, so there are differing impacts for how technology works
in different communities and it’s parsed by income or parsed by race, parsed by ethnicity
and so on. So what are we doing, in terms of what technologies do we choose, and how
do we implement them, and how do we train people, how do we talk to our faculty about
teaching with these technologies? What are we doing to make sure that we’re being culturally
responsive in how we create those technologies or how we implement these technologies and
make them available to faculty and students?  So, if I were to sum up what I’ve learned
in the last couple of years, it’s, first of all similar to Angela Meyers’ comments this
morning; it’s about the people, it’s not really about the technology. There’s not like a cultural
responsiveness feature option in Canvas. You can’t go into the admin panel and go [Makes
clicking noise] and now your courses are culturally responsive. It’s a lot about what we do pedagogically
with the tools that Canvas provides and probably more about what we do in here and in here
to think about how we connect with our students and how we learn about what they bring to
the classroom.  I’m going to turn to Geneva Gay again for
help on this one. This has been a, she pulls out three themes, she’s reviewed the research
on what’s effective in cultural responsiveness and in cultural responsive teaching, and she
pulls out these three themes, and I’m going to use those to help kind of divide up what
I want to talk about for the rest of the presentation.  So culturally relevant content, teacher attitude
and expectation, and instructional actions. As she says here, right, it’s all three together.
So you can’t just kind of do a few things with your pedagogy and then decide I’m done.
I’m culturally responsive now. Again, you have to keep learning. The other is that some
of this can be really heavy lifting, emotionally, it can be heavy lifting in terms of the workload
to try and change your course around a little bit. So, I’m going to try and pick out a few
things that are a little easier and that are good places to get started and highlight those.
I’m going to take them out order too.  So I’ll start with the instructional actions.
Making your classes mobile ready is really, relatively low-difficulty way to go about
it. And the evidence I would point to on this is a bunch of studies done by Pew Research,
this is the most recent one, that look at who has smartphones, number one, and who is
only accessing the internet via smartphone. So they don’t have a broadband connection
at home. If you look at the highlighted stuff in that first column, notice there’s a big
jump in the middle there between white and non-Hispanic, is that even readable in like
the fourth row? Okay. This big jump between white comma non-Hispanic and black and Hispanic
do not have broadband at home. The same with, it’s actually the same across the way. Totally
smartphone dependent is that far right-hand column, so that’s their only internet access,
a smartphone.  In the next one down, high school graduation
or less or some college, well that’s, right, that’s us, especially at a community college?
Big jump from college plus, right, people who have a college education already. And
then again on income, so people in, so the working poor, the people in low-wage jobs,
right around the poverty line there, which is, in Washington State, it’s a little below
$30,000 a year, and then there’s a big jump once you step up into the $30,000 to $70,000
per year income bracket.  So the students in our immigrant communities,
the first-generation Americans, the working poor that we serve, are smartphone dependent,
right, and they’re doing all their work on a smartphone. Which, I’ve got to say is pretty
impressive, cause it drives me crazy to ready that tiny screen after too long. So I’m pretty
impressed that they’re succeeding in our classes that way. But we can help them by making our
content more mobile. The flip side of this is don’t forget print. We talk a lot about
OER and e-texts as ways to reduce costs. OER and e-texts are great, reading on, the phone
or reading on a broadband-enabled computer, particularly the publisher-provided e-texts,
you pretty much have to have a broadband-enabled computer. So yeah we reduced the textbook
costs, but we’ve put it in a format that you can’t get at unless you’re on campus during
the hours that the lab and the library are open. So print still matters and boy, if you
can hit the sweet spot with OER print that’s like $25 or 35 bucks, you’re doing really
well.  Another one is, this gets more into the pedagogy
and what we do in the classroom and how we’re teaching our content. Collaboration is something
that is, collaboration and interdependency are really common in many of the immigrant
communities, many communities of color. So, to the extent that we can add and build more
collaboration into what we do in the classroom, that is valuable and helpful and helps students
from very diverse backgrounds succeed in our classes. This doesn’t have to be, and as somebody
whose tried to do this as a teacher, this doesn’t have to be these quarter-long like behemoth projects
that we, you know as probably as teachers and educators we all hated when we were in
school because we were one of the two people in the group who did all the work. So, something
that lasts 20 minutes in a class can add a lot of value to what the students are learning.  In my, I used to teach web design, and we
would get together every week. The students would bring in their homeworks and bring in
the assignments they’d been working on, and they’d sit, they’d pair up for 20 minutes,
25 minutes, and go over each other’s code and make suggestions. “How’d you solve that
problem?” or “I’m having this problem, how can I work on it?” At the end of 25 minutes,
we’d go back and do something else. That was the end of, that was the collaboration. It
was valuable to the students in the class, and they were able to collaborate with each
other and learn the material more in-depth. There’s one study I want to cherry pick here,
not because it’s the only one that ever showed this, but because it was one that kind of
hit me in the nose. It was done by two researchers, Kelly Hogan and Sarah Eddie, and they were
looking at, you know, a lot of this stuff works really well in a community college class
of like 30 students, and then you hear from people at large universities and they say
“Well I got 150 students in my class, you can’t do small group collaboration in that
setting” or “I teach really content-heavy class, I’ve got this amount of stuff, I’ve
got to get through it in a quarter, and if I don’t, then the 102 instructor is going
to be in my face because I didn’t get the job done.”  So what they studied, what Kelly Hogan and
Sarah Eddie studied, was introductory biology at a regional university. So 100 plus lectures,
and biology is one of those classes, right, where there’s a whole lot of content that
has to get covered in the course of a quarter. The study is great because it’s a controlled
study. So, in the controlled situation, the students were, the students attended a regular
hour-long lecture, kind of like the lecture up in front of the classroom, drones on for
an hour, kind of like what you’re in the middle of here. In the experimental condition, they
would break up the lecture, and the students would be assigned a few questions. And then
would pair groups of two or three, work on the questions in your small group, talk about
them, and then, there’s a short discussion after the students have worked together, with
the whole class. The students can bring back things that they couldn’t understand or things
that they found challenging about the questions or clarifications they needed, and they would
have that small discussion in the whole class.  If you’re a real active learning geek like
me, then you look at that, and you go, “That’s not active learning, that’s not really useful.”
Then you’d see results like this, and you’d go “Hmmm.” That little bit of collaboration,
that little bit of active learning makes a real difference. So what they found, all students
2.5 times likely to study more, two times more likely to read, I can live with that,
right. Black students spoke up equally versus half as often in the controlled situation.
Well, you know, as teachers we always talk about if you speak up in class, if you want
to be engaged, if you want to succeed as a student, speak up in class. If groups of students
are not speaking up and are not engaging in the class that way, we’re creating a success
gap. So, equally versus half as often, that’s a pretty good input. The output measures were
the ones that caught my attention as well. So the achievement gap, the difference between
tests scores, right, for students in one demographic group versus students in another demographic
group. So, cut by half for black students, and eliminated for first-gen students. So
they eliminated the achievement gap for students who were the first in their generation to
go to college. All from, what is essentially the universal design for learning tactic called
pair and share.  So in Canvas, it’s a Canvas conference, we
should probably talk about some Canvas tools, groups, it’s actually frighteningly easy to
create and dissolve groups in Canvas. So you’re not having to do this once at the beginning
of the quarter, it’s a really onerous task, and so I’m going to make these groups last
all quarter long because it was so painful to set them up. Nah, it’s so easy, just do
them for a week. Collaboration, so when I wrote these, when I had to turn these slides
in, Google Docs was the only collaboration, so after yesterday, right, we can add Microsoft
to that, and discussions. But I would encourage you if you’re thinking
about discussions in this environment, I would encourage you to look up a talk from InstructureCon
a couple of years ago by a guy by the name of Nathan Bierma, and it’s called “Think Outside
the Thread.” Once again, this is cited in the, it will be in the community page after
this. So I’ve got links to his talks and to also some of the papers that he used as a
foundation for that talk. So, what he does is unpack that kind of soul-deadening one-post
two-reply all class discussion into a whole array of different discussion options and
different ways that you can use discussions to help your students in your class. And I
would highly encourage you to look at that. Even if you’re not buying off on the cultural
responsiveness stuff, go watch that talk.  So, second one from Geneva Gay, culturally
relevant content. This draws, this kind of thinly veiled constructivism at some level,
right. So it draws on the idea that learning is highly contextual, right. So, what students
are going to learn the best is something that they can connect to something in their lives.
In particularly in communities of color, immigrant communities, poor communities, the value systems
are heavily weighted toward interdependence. So heavily weighted towards working with each
other and collaborating and working together to solve problems and to, for some of the
communities, to survive. So that’s an interesting place to start drawing instructional inspiration.
To the extent that we can connect what we’re doing, and again, we’re back to what Angela
Meyers was talking about Mark Prensky was talking about yesterday, the students who
connect what they’re learning to real-world problems that they face or that they perceive
are important, become engaged and they work their tails off to learn more about that subject.  So, this brings us to the question, right,
what’s in your context? What’s in your content? How or what are you using for your examples?
What’s in your quiz questions? What are you using as kind of the structure for your lectures
and for the problems that you’re posing to your students, that what you have to provide
as a teacher will resolve? One vignette from our campus, one of our philosophy instructors
many years ago was looking at his textbook and kind of came to the conclusion that he
was looking at a class that was, you know, half or more than half Asian students, and
he was teaching them about the German and Greek guys. And if you know philosophy at
all, there’s a 1,000-year tradition that we in the West call Eastern philosophy. And so,
he tossed his textbook, he went combination of open educational resources and library
resources, and stuff he’d pulled out of our databases, the library databases that we subscribe
to, rebuilt his entire course, and so now he’s incorporated Eastern philosophy into
his course, he’s found something that his students can connect to from their cultural
background, and he’s got a much broader, much more rigorous course because it actually is
reflecting a much broader perspective on philosophy.  So what’s in your content? That sort of begs
the question, “Oh, yeah, so Canvas tools for that?” Commons is great; if your institution
has not turned Commons on, go badger your admin. OER repositories of it, Open was one
that we used in Washington State that our community and technical college system has
built, and it’s great. There are lots of others out there. Then one of my colleagues are here
from our library, so I’d be remiss if I didn’t mention library databases, and she’d let me
know about it, so there you are, Deb.  This all sort of begs the question, “How do
you know what’s relevant?” My first, one of the first places I looked was what does our
institutional researcher have for me? That slide that I started with, that was from data
that she pulled, we share that off our website. It was data put together by our institutional
research, so it’s a broad brush I know, kind of what the community looks like.  One of the things that I’ve done in my classes
is do a class survey, so use the survey tool, it’s kind of buried under quizzes. A non-graded
survey, and ask my students some questions at the beginning of the class. It’s something
that we do at the end of the first day, or if it’s online, we do it, you know it’s one
of those things that you do in the first three days of the online class. Some of the questions
are sort of pretty obvious task-based questions. What other classes have you taken in this
program? Why are you interested in this subject? That one actually gets some interesting answers
because often the “why” has something to do with what’s a problem in their community or
a problem in their family that they’re trying to solve. When do you plan to study and work
on class assignments is another one that I like to ask. That, particularly in online
classes, how are you planning on doing your online work? In face-to-face classes as well.
When do you plan to study? Stuff comes out from that question. Well, I’m going to study
on campus because I can’t at home because there’s eight of us living in a one-bedroom
apartment. Or, I can’t stay after class, I’ve got to rush out because I’m supposed to get
home and take care of my younger siblings for the rest of the day, and then I’ll probably
study at like 10 o’clock at night after they’ve all gone to bed. That gives me some clues
about what to work with.  The last piece of that then, is to do your
homework. So once you’ve found out these things about your students, you have to learn about,
well what does that mean for my instruction? If in the course of that survey you figure
out “Well half of my class is Muslim,” it might be a good time to go look at your calendar
and see if you’ve scheduled any exams like on the last day of Ramadan, right. So for
those of you who are Christian, how many of you like the idea of a final exam on, say,
December 26? Yeah. Or “Gee, half my classes are, half of my students are Muslim, and it’s
Ramadan, and I teach at 3 o’clock in the afternoon, and they all look like they’re wasted and
they’re completely listless.” Well, yeah, it’s because they fast during Ramadan, and
they haven’t eaten for like the last, and we have like 18 hours of daylight in the Northwest,
so they haven’t eaten since like 4 a.m. So yeah, I’d be feeling pretty wrecked by three
in the afternoon.  So you’ve got to do your homework once you’ve
sort of gleaned what you can from your institutional research and your survey. I would ask, I would
add, talk to your students, find out about them. Just, you don’t have to ask really invasive
questions, just “Hey, what’s going on? How’s your day been? What did you do last weekend?”
You learn lots of things about your students, things that you can connect with, both sort
of, you know some of this is real Machiavellian, right, well, “I’m going to connect with you,
I’m going to learn this about you so I can use it to help you, to connect it to a learning
experience.” But, it’s a wonderful way to learn about these people that we’re working
with for a quarter.  That kind of brings us to the last bit. This
one to me is the hardest in terms because it means that you have to unpack your own
experience and your own history. For me, as some middle-aged, middle-class white guy,
I was raised in a middle-class family, my parents were educators, my grandparents were
educators, I kind of have this education thing wired. What that also means is I have a lot
of blind spots, and I think the third question up here is probably the most important of
the three. So I have a lot of things that I just don’t see because my context has never
sort of been that world. I have stories from my great-grandparents, they’re the ones that
immigrated to the U.S. about some of the things they did to survive. But that’s, well that
was 1916, that’s, the world’s changed a little, so the question that I think we have to keep
asking ourselves, I have to keep asking myself is “What am I missing?” The thing is we do
bring lots of assumptions to the classroom. We’d like to say things like “I don’t see
color” and “I treat all people the same,” and it’s great to think that, but it turns
out that it has sort of a limited basis in reality.  There’s a whole stream of research on this.
I’m going to pull one study out by Marion Bertrand and her team at University of Chicago.
What they did was they sent thousands of resumes to in response to job ads, and the resumes
were identical. I see some nodding heads, so I think some people have read this one,
right. The resumes were identical, except they changed the names. So the names on some
of the resumes were kind of typical waspy names, Brendon, Emily. The names on some of
them were typical more of the African-American community, say Lakeesha, Jamal. You can probably
guess where this is going, right? So the waspy white-sounding names got callbacks at a much
higher level, at a statistically significant higher level, than the African-American sounding
names. So I’m pretty certain that you can go out there and say that probably wasn’t
3,000 openly racist hiring managers, but it was enough hiring managers who just without
even realizing it were picking one over the other, based on the name. So it’s not like
we’re out, it’s not a case of openly, like open racism, or open bias against some of
our students and against people, it’s just stuff that we don’t even realize we’re doing.
And that’s, this I mentioned earlier, this gets challenging here, right where your microphone
is, this gets challenging in the heart and in the brain, so you kind of, you have to
take your time to unpack this.  A couple of great, I don’t have any Canvas
tools for this. A couple of great resources that I think are really useful. The Implicit
Association Test. If you read Malcolm Gladwell’s “Blink” he goes on for a chapter or so about
the IATs. These were online, it’s an online experiment conducted by Harvard University
by the psych department that tries to get at those biases that we don’t even know we
have. There’s a whole list of them you can try. There’s one based on race, there’s one
for ethnicity, there’s one for weight, right. One for gender presentation. You can work
through these and kind of, and it helps kind of get at the biases that might be lurking
beneath the surface, and the, it actually doesn’t take very long to do the tests. I
recommend you leave a little bit of time to go, “Woah” in your best Keanu Reeves’ voice
after you take it. I knew what the tests were. I went in, and I tried to do them, and it,
hey, I’m a smart guy. I know what the test if trying to figure out, I’m going to wire
the system. It’s worked for me since I took the SATs in high school. I’m going to try
to wire the test, and I couldn’t do it. I could not game the test. It still pulled out
stuff. I knew it was true, but even when I tried to game it, it picked it out. So these
are really, actually I think these work really well at helping you kind of self-diagnose.  If you want to read more in this, start within
your discipline. I just like three months ago came across the cultural responsive computing
literature. So I teach, when I taught, and when I teach, my disciplinary home is usually
web design, web development. So I just discovered the whole cultural responsive computing literature,
and it’s deep and rich, and there’s lots of people writing about it. There are very few
disciplines where there aren’t. As a talk to my other colleagues doing this work, there
are very few disciplines where you can’t find somebody who’s doing work on cultural responsiveness
in teaching math or literature or whatever.  So that’s a great place to start because that’s
your disciplinary home, right, you’re connecting it to your context, you’re connecting it to
things you know already. The last place I would look certainly is the cultural responsive
education teaching literature. The Gary Howard book that I mentioned at the beginning and
the Geneva Gay book are all good places to start.  So, one last thought, and then I think we
might get away with a few questions. We have this narrative that we educators, particularly
for my friends and colleagues in the community college world, we have this narrative about
education is opportunity. Education is the chance for our students to move ahead and
to get a leg up in our society, and then we have this whole narrative about how technology
can do the same thing, right. Technology is the chance for students who are not well-served
by the educational world, to by formal education or by our educational system, to get a leg
up in the world and to have some opportunities to improve either themselves or their economic
situation or their lot in life.  They don’t, these things don’t happen naturally,
right. As teachers, as Canvas administrators, as educators, it’s up to us to figure out,
is what I’m doing in the classroom actually doing this for my student? Am I being successful
at helping my students reach, connect their lives with how to, with the content that I’m
teaching and with the things that they should learn in order to be successful and to make
the change that they want to make in the world. Similarly, with technology, am I doing this,
am I implementing this in a way that works for the students in my classroom, regardless
of their background? Am I finding ways to connect the technology that I’m using to the
various cultures and to the various histories that they bring to the classroom? There really
is, that’s really up to use as the educators. We’re the ones who know the students, hopefully,
right? We’re the ones who know the students. We’re the ones who are trying to figure out
what to do with the technology. So, I hope I’m leaving you with the idea that we have
some agency in this, we have some ability to make this change, and we can be the ones
who help connect our students from all cultures and all histories to learning, and that Canvas
may play a role, and that we probably have some role in educational technology that we
can use to connect those narratives about education for opportunity and technology ed-tech
for opportunity.  So, again, I’ll have this stuff in the community.
That’s how to reach me, and I think I just saw them wave 10 minutes, so we got a couple
of minutes here for questions. So, thank you.  It’s only water. So Kelly’s got one. Male: It’s not so much a question as just
an observation that both yesterday’s afternoon keynote and this morning’s keynote add this
additional tool to the tool kit by creating ways in which students in the classrooms can
create some of their content and some of their learning in a way that is closer [INAUDIBLE]
to them, and in that same token now where they are improving their own learning, but
they’re improving the learning of their classmates [INAUDIBLE]. Marc: So yeah, so great point, I have to repeat
for the video. So great point that yesterday’s keynote and the product keynote both talked
about students creating their own content, and if you, so Kristie Pharaoh’s section was
scheduled at the same time, so grab the video when it comes up, because she is extremely
passionate about this, and she is extremely knowledgeable about this, but the degree to
which students can help create the content connects them to the learning and gives them
an opportunity to connect what you’re trying to teach to their culture and to their history.
So, that’s a great observation, I think that’s absolutely, that’s actually one of the slides
that didn’t make the cut was to the degree, one of the findings that Geneva Gay writes
about a bit is if students are really able to take ownership of their learning, that
is particularly successful with students from different ethnic backgrounds and diverse backgrounds,
yeah.  Marc: Yeah?  Female 1: [INAUDIBLE] Marc: So the question is, do I have a way
to help instructors so when you talk to instructors about inclusive design and about cultural
responsiveness, how do you encourage them to… Female 1: [INAUDIBLE] Marc: Right, to do the work, because it is
extra work, right? And even the Hogan and Eddie intervention, right, unpacking your
class and breaking it up and having questions, you go to figure out what the questions are,
so there’s more work there. Do you have a related question? Female 2: [INAUDIBLE] Marc: And can I share the best practices and
the things that we do, like the top 10, the 10 things you can do to make your course more
culturally responsive? So I wish I had a, I wish that we’d cracked that nut really well.
One of the things that’s having an impact on our campus and making people ask these
questions is having it in the tenure criteria. Because now all of a sudden, not only does
the probationary faculty have to do it, have to talk about this and articulate this, but
their working committee and the tenure review committee have to be able to mentor that instructor,
and they have to be able to work with the instructor. So that’s one that’s a little
bit more of a high-pressure tactic, because hey, tenure. The top 10 tips are actually
kind of my low-impact, here’s an easy way to just start down the road, let’s just crack
this door a little bit and do a few things, and see if it can help.  But yeah, it is, the other thing that I talk
about and that I’ve talked with some of my colleagues have talked about is to point out
how many different people you can hit with one small tactic, how many different people
you can connect with one small tactic. Universal design for learning is a great literature
to dig into for this, it actually came out of the accessibility community, but it turns
out that a lot of the recommendations like “Hey, caption your videos.” Well, captioned
videos work super well for students who are learning English. They work super well for
students who are studying at night at home because now they’re not listening to the video
out loud. Turns out like the number one use of captioning, of captioned video, is couples,
one partner has gone to sleep and the other one wants to watch TV, so they watch it with
the captions on. Well, same thing goes if you’re a student who’s riding a bus somewhere,
it’s really hard to, even with good ear buds, right, it’s really hard to hear what’s going
on. So the captioning allows you to watch that video while you’re on the bus to work.
So, pointing out, so, part of my argument that I have these conversations with faculty
is you can actually solve like six problems with this one little intervention.  I’m sort of backing into this, right. I’m
going into it as a much more soft-pedal approach. Here are a few things you can do, and then
there are some other instructors on our campus who are much more on the nose, about “Hey,
you need to shape up.” So we keep it as a conversation around our campus. Do we have
time for one more? Not really? Okay.  So we’re breaking for lunch after this. I
can hang out and talk afterward for awhile. So, thank you.

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